Table of Contents


Detrimental Effects of Abortion: An Annotated Bibliography With Commentary


Copyright © 2001 Thomas W. Strahan




Introductory Material

Note On Corrections and Recommendations 

Supplements and Updates                                                                                 x

Editor’s Introduction                                                                                           xi

Editor’s Discussion of Key Research Findings and Conclusions               xii


Standard of Care for Abortion

Abortion Procedures - Standards and Guidelines                                          1

Informed Consent                                                                                                4


Abortion Decision-Making

General Background Studies                                                                              8

Crisis Theory                                                                                                        11

Pregnancy as a Crisis                          `                                               12

Pregnancy Reactions/Unwanted Pregnancy                                   15

Characteristics of Women Having Induced Abortion                                   18

Abortion Decision Making - Role of Males                                                    20

Adoption as An Option                                                                                      23


Psychological Effects of Abortion

Validity of Studies                                                                                               24

Risk Factors for Adverse Emotional Consequences of Abortion                26

Post-Abortion Stress/Trauma/Post-Abortion Syndrome                              26

Grief and Loss                                                                                                      30

General Background Studies                                                              30

Grief and Loss Following Abortion                                                  34

Guilt                                                                                                                        36

General Background Studies                                                              36

Abortion-Related Guilt/Regret/Violation of

Conscience or Belief                                                            38

Ambivalence or Inner Conflict                                                                           40

Anxiety                                                                                                                  41

Intrusion/Avoidance/Dreams/Nightmares                                                      42

Denial                                                                                                                     44

Dissociation                                                                                                          49

Narcissism                                                                                                             50

Self-Image                                                                                                             51

Self-Punishment (Masochism) or Punishment of Others (Sadism)              52

Depression                                                                                                            53

General Background Studies                                                              53

Abortion-Related Depression                                                            56

Depression Shortly Prior to Abortion                                              57

Depression During Subsequent Pregnancies                                 58

Anniversary Depressive Reactions                                                  59

Depressive Reactions from Genetic Abortion                                 60

Short Term Depressive Reactions                                                     61

Long Term Depressive Reactions                                                     63

Psychiatric or Psychological Hospitalization or Consultation                     65

Self-Destructive Behavior                                                                                  66

Suicide                                                                                                   66

Accidents                                                                                              69

Repeat Abortions                                                                                70

Eating Disorders                                                                                  78

Substance Abuse                                                                                                80

General Background Studies (Substance Abuse)                          80

Substance Abuse and Induced Abortion                                        83

                Smoking                                                                                                 88

Long-Terms Effects of Abortion                                                                       94

Replacement Pregnancies/Rapid Repeat Pregnancies After Abortion       98

Sterilization                                                                                                           99

Impact of Abortion On Others                                                                           100

Men And Abortion                                                                             100

Abortion’s Impact on Siblings                                                          107

Impact of Abortion on Marriage and Family                                   110

Violence                                                                                                                 121

“Wantedness” as a Factor in Child Abuse                                     121

Child Abuse and Its Relationship to Abortion                               122

Child Neglect or Failure to Bond                                                       124

Family Violence and Abortion                                                           126

Abortion as a Risk Factor for Violence During Pregnancy           127

Homicide of Women During and Following Pregnancy                129

Sexual Assault Pregnancy and Abortion                                                         130

Rape                                                                                                       130

Incest                                                                                                     133

Second and Third Trimester Abortion                                                             135


Social Effects and Implications of Abortion

Outcome - Refused Abortions                                                                           137

Sex Selection Abortion                                                                                       139

Genetic Engineering                                                                                            141

Deterioration of Economic and Social Conditions Following Abortion      142

Abortion and Race or Poverty                                                                           143

Abortion and Religion                                                                                        151

Decline of Religious Involvement After Abortion                                         154


Physical Effects of Abortion

Abortion Technique and Its Relationship to Adverse Physical Effects     155

Short Term Complications and Other Aspects of Morbidity                        156

Immediate Physical Complications                                                                    159

Cervical Injuries                                                                                   160

Perforated Uterus                                                                                 161

Pain in Women                                                                                                     163

Acute Pain                                                                                            163

Chronic Pain                                                                                         164

Organ or System Failure                                                                                     165

Cerebrovascular Diseases (Stroke)                                                   165

Circulatory Diseases                                                                           165

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)                              166

Amniotic Fluid Embolism                                                                    166

Pulmonary Embolism                                                                           167

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome                                             167

Infection Associated With Abortion                                                               168

Septic Abortion                                                                                    168

Acute Renal Failure from Septic Abortion                                       168

Autoimmune Disease                                                                          168

Endometritis                                                                                          169

Genital Tract Infection                                                                        170

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)                                                    172

General Background Studies                                              172

Abortion-Related Pelvic Inflammatory Disease              174

Bacterial Vaginosis                                                                              177

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection                                                     179

Gonnorhea                                                                                            181

HIV/AIDS                                                                              182

Hepatitis                                                                                185

Use of Antibiotics in Connection With Induced Abortion          185

Impact on Later Pregnancies                                                                              188

Secondary Infertility                                                                            188

Uterine Fibroids                                                                                   189

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease                                                   189

Hypertension (High-Blood Pressure)                                               190

Ectopic Pregnancy                                                                               192

Placenta Previa/Aburuptio Placentae/Retained Placenta              196

Subsequent Miscarriage, Premature Birth or Low Birth Weight  198

Neonatal Infection                                                                               204

Intraamniotic Infection                                                                        204

Subsequent Fetal Malformation/Birth Defects                               204

Cancer Risk Associated With Abortion                                                          206

General Studies                                                                                    206

Breast Cancer                                                                                       206

Protective Effect of “Early Childbirth”                             207

Induced Abortion as an Independent Risk Factor         209

Cervical Cancer                                                                                    214

Ovarian Cancer                                                                                     219

Endometrial Cancer                                                                              222

Lung Cancer                                                                                         224

Colon and Rectal Cancer                                                                    226

Other Cancers                                                                                       227


Abortion and Maternal Mortality

Maternal Death from Abortion                                                                          227

Pregnancy-Associated Mortality                                                                      233


Adolescents and Abortion

Adolescent Developmental Issues                                                                   235

Abortion Decision-Making Among Adolescents                                          243

Pregnant Teenagers’ Reliance on Others to Make

 Pregnancy Resolution Decisions                                     246

Adolescent Abortion and Parental Involvement                            247

Parental Notice or Consent                                                247

Effect of Parental Involvement Laws                                248

Necessity of Parental Involvement                                                   249

Family Estrangement                                                           249

Parental Reaction to Pregnancy                                        251

Profile of Adolescents Not Disclosing Pregnancy

or Abortion to Parents                                        252

Availability of Financial Resources as a Factor                              252

Adolescent Violation of Conscience or Belief                                                255

Adolescent Long Term Psychological Sequelae                                            256

Adolescent Demographic Data                                                                         256

Differential Physical Complications of Adolescent Abortion                      257

Adolescent Risk of Breast Cancer                                                                    258


Definition of Terms                                                                                                        260


ISBN: 0-9648957-0-6         $34.95 (paper)     276 pp.

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